At A Glance
- The sample cannot be tracked over time.
- Provides pricing data in several categories, including specific food items (e.g., meats, dairy, fruits and vegetables) by metropolitan area.
- Data collected forms the basis of the Cost of Living Index, which provides a reasonably accurate measure of living cost differences between urban areas.
- The Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER, the survey sponsor) stringently reviews all prices reported, and attempts to eliminate errors and noncompliance with pricing specifications.
- The sample is not representative of the United States (metropolitan statistical areas ask to participate) and is skewed toward higher-income households and higher-priced products typically purchased by those households.
To collect price data on items in six different categories (groceries, housing, utilities, transportation, health care, and miscellaneous goods and services) from metropolitan areas in the United States (US).
Metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the US. A city in a non-metropolitan county may participate if the county population exceeds 50,000 and if the population of the city to be priced exceeds 35,000.
Began in 1968. Conducted quarterly. Most recent year conducted was 2012.
The Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER)
Metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) ask to participate, so sample is not necessarily representative. Chambers of commerce, economic development agencies, and universities in participating MSAs select a minimum sample of businesses in each pricing category. These are businesses used by higher-income households of professionals and executives. Beginning in 2009, this project began publishing data on other income quintile categories, household types, and demographic groups, such as Construction Workers and Mechanics, Self-Employed Workers, and Retirees.
Approximately 300 metropolitan areas in participating US cities every quarter (including the first quarter of 2010).
Items are selected representing consumer expenditures categories (e.g., groceries). Specific items used in the ACCRA Index are surrogates for entire categories of consumer spending. For this approach to work, price differences among urban areas for the items in the Index must accurately reflect differences for the categories they represent. Learn more.
Selection of samples for all items in the Index is guided by what are typically used by professional and managerial households in the top income quintile. For example, only grocery and apparel stores where individuals from professional and managerial households would normally shop are examined. Even if discount stores are a majority of the overall market, they will not be in the sample unless upper-income professionals and executives actually shop there.
The sample is not representative of the US and is skewed toward higher-income households and higher-priced products typically purchased by those households. The sample cannot be tracked over time. All price data are obtained from sources deemed reliable, but no representation is made as to the complete accuracy thereof. They are published subject to errors, omissions, changes, and withdrawals without notice.
Beginning in February 2008, the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER) began publishing an annual average survey compiled from data submitted in those previous quarters. For urban areas where C2ER has data for fewer than three pricing periods, it calculates missing price data in order to have a complete set of observations.
|Name||Methods of Assessment|
|Median household income||Based on US Census Bureau American Community Survey|
|Median household income adjusted for cost of living||Calculated variable based on ACS median household income and cost of living index derived from data on more than 50,000 prices covering 60 different items collected quarterly from local chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, or university applied economic centers.|
|Name||Methods of Assessment|
|Metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), city code, state, metro/micro area, and urban area||N/A|
|Name||Methods of Assessment|
|Average home prices||Methods for compiling these data vary by location|
|Average monthly rent||Inquiries to local property owners|
|Average nominal price of food||In-store review and recording prices|
|Average nominal prices of selected food items (e.g., fresh fruits and vegetables, ground beef, milk, soda, pizza, beer)||In-store review and recording of prices|
Data Access and Cost
Data are available for purchase.
Fee-based. City comparisons can be made online for $7.95. The most recent ACCRA COLI can be purchased online in PDF, print, or Excel formats. Prices range from $75.00 for the PDF to $125 for a combination of formats. Back issues are available in Excel format beginning at $250 for each annual index from 1991 through 2008. Historical datasets that include data from 1990 to 2009 range from $750 to $1500 (discount for academics/researchers). 2006 median household income data are available at the online store for $12.95.
Many university libraries have these data. Researchers affiliated with a university should check their institution’s library first as the data may be available to them free of charge.
Metropolitan statistical areas, city code, state, metro/micro area, and urban area.
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Powell LM. Fast food costs and adolescent Body Mass Index: Evidence from panel data. Journal of Health Economics 2009;29(5):963-970.
Sturm R, Datar A. Body mass index in elementary school children, metropolitan area food price and food outlet density. Public Health 2005;119(12):1059-1068.