At A Glance

Noteworthy Characteristics

  • Dataset includes 24h dietary recall data for young children between ages 1 to 48 months (data collected using USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method and analyzed). Dataset also includes weight and length/measurement data on children from infancy to around age 4 years.
  • Dataset can be used to examine associations between WIC participation status and various health/nutrition outcomes.
  • Replicate weights are provided so that national estimates can be generated.
  • USDA has previously published five reports using this dataset: Intention to Breastfeed Report, Infant Year Report, Second Year Report, Third Year Report, Fourth Year Report
  • Includes data on sleep.



The WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2, also known as the “Feeding My Baby” Study, captures data on caregivers and their children over the first 6 years of the child’s life after WIC enrollment. The study will also do a one-time data collection around the child’s ninth birthday. Study research questions include child feeding practices, associations between WIC services and those practices, and the health and nutrition outcomes of children receiving WIC.

Target Population

Children who were enrolled in WIC either during the mother’s pregnancy or shortly after birth (children were born between April 2013 and July 2014).


Data collection began in July 2013 and the latest report was released in September 2020.


United States Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service

Special Note(s)



Sample Design

Longitudinal Study

Sample Size

3,775 caregivers who completed at least 1- or 3- month postpartum interview.

Key Variables


NameMethods of Assessment
Mother's race
Mother's ethnicity
Age of mother at the birth of the study child
Mother's educational attainment
Mother's marital status
Household food security status
Participation in non-WIC benefit programs (e.g., SNAP, TANF)
Parity (birth order)
Reported weight status of mother
Household income poverty
Timing of WIC enrollment
WIC participation status


NameMethods of Assessment
24th dietary recall data from ages 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 24,36,48 months
Prenatal breastfeeding intentions
Breastfeeding initiation and cessation
Age at and progression of introduction of various complementary foods
Maternal feeding practices and feeding beliefs

Physical Activity-Related

NameMethods of Assessment
Time spent in outdoor activities


NameMethods of Assessment
Physical sleep environment: Items needed for sleep (e.g., stuffed animal, pacifier)Interview/Questionnaire with Parent/Caregiver
Sleep continuity: Number of awakeningsInterview/Questionnaire with Parent/Caregiver
Sleep duration and quantity: Total sleep timeInterview/Questionnaire with Parent/Caregiver


NameMethods of Assessment
Children's weight and length/height measurements in early infancy, late infancy/early toddlerhood, and around ages 24, 36, and 48 months


NameMethods of Assessment
National (U.S.)

Policy type/Instrument

NameMethods of Assessment
USDA AMPM for dietary recall

Content Areas

NameMethods of Assessment
WIC participation
Food Security

Special Note(s)

Because this study is intended to assess associations between WIC participation and health and nutrition outcomes, many of the variables relate to WIC benefits (i.e., food package, nutrition education, breastfeeding support).

Data Access and Cost

Data Availability

Data can be requested by contacting


Free of charge


Geocode Variable(s)


Existing Linkages


Selected Publications

Au, L. E., Gurzo, K., Paolicelli, C., Whaley, S. E., Weinfield, N. S., & Ritchie, L. D. (2018). Diet Quality of US Infants and Toddlers 7–24 Months Old in the WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2. The Journal of nutrition, 148(11), 1786-1793.

Au, L. E., Paolicelli, C., Gurzo, K., Ritchie, L. D., Weinfield, N. S., Plank, K. R., & Whaley, S. E. (2019). Contribution of WIC-Eligible Foods to the Overall Diet of 13-and 24-Month-Old Toddlers in the WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 119(3), 435-448.

Gleason, S., Wilkin, M. K., Sallack, L., Whaley, S. E., Martinez, C., & Paolicelli, C. (2020). Breastfeeding Duration Is Associated With WIC Site-Level Breastfeeding Support Practices. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.

Paolicelli, C., Berman, D., Owens, T., Magness, A., & Scanlon, K. S. (2017). Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Patterns Among Women Enrolled in WIC: WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2. Breastfeeding Medicine.

Weinfield, N. S., Borger, C., & Gola, A. A. (2020). Breastfeeding Duration in a Low-Income Sample Is Associated With Child Diet Quality at Age Three. Journal of Human Lactation, 0890334420903029.

Weinfield, N. S., Borger, C., Au, L. E., Whaley, S. E., Berman, D., & Ritchie, L. D. (2020). Longer Participation in WIC Is Associated with Better Diet Quality in 24-Month-Old Children. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Whaley, S. E., Martinez, C. E., Paolicelli, C., Ritchie, L. D., & Weinfield, N. S. (2020). Predictors of WIC Participation Through 2 Years of Age. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.


WIC ITFPS-2: Fourth Year Report:

WIC ITFPS-2: Infant Year Report:

WIC ITFPS-2: Intention to Breastfeed:

WIC ITFPS-2: Second Year Report:

WIC ITFPS-2: Third Year Report:


Available upon request with the datasets


To complement the WIC ITFPS-2 Infant Year Report and Second Year Report, the study team developed six short videos which provide an overview of the study’s methods as well as results from the first two years of study children’s lives:
• Module 1: Study Designs and Methods:
• Module 2: Prenatal Beliefs, Breastfeeding Initiation, and Breastfeeding and Formula Feeding from 1-7 Months:
• Module 3: Introduction of Complementary Foods and Feeding Older Infants:
• Module 4: Work, Child Care, and Developmental Progression in Feeding:
• Module 5: Food Intake & Energy and Nutrient Intake:
• Module 6: Weight and Growth: