At A Glance

Noteworthy Characteristics

  • Measures breastfeeding-related maternity practices in US maternity care facilities.
  • Had >80% response rate across survey years.
  • Census survey of hospitals and birthing centers. Data available for all 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.



Census survey of hospitals and birthing centers. Data available for all 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Island Territories (American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands).

Target Population

Facilities providing regular maternity care in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories.


Began in 2007. Conducted every other year.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Special Note(s)

Information is obtained from an individual at the maternity care facility who has been identified as having the most knowledge regarding the facility’s maternity and infant feeding practices and policies.


Sample Design

Census of all U.S. maternity care facilities that routinely provide intrapartum care.

Sample Size

Approximately 2700 maternity care facilities across survey years. Sampling was not performed because the survey was designed to include all hospitals and birth centers that provide intrapartum care in the U.S. and its territories. The response rate was >80% across survey years.

Key Variables


NameMethods of Assessment
Human milk feeding of infants in neonatal intensive care unitsInterview/questionnaire
Provision of discharge packs containing infant formulaInterview/questionnaire
Practices related to breastfeeding assistanceInterview/questionnaire
Practices related to postpartum feeding of infantsInterview/questionnaire
Staff breastfeeding training and educationInterview/questionnaire
Structural and organizational factors related to breastfeeding and maternity careInterview/questionnaire
Types of breastfeeding support following dischargeInterview/questionnaire


NameMethods of Assessment
Schedule-related sleep environment: Family eating schedulesQuestionnaire
Sleep and health conditions: Sleep as a risk factor of SIDS (infant sleep position)Questionnaire
Sleep-related policies: Other (hospital policies)Questionnaire
Social sleep environment: Sleep location (e.g., living room)Questionnaire


NameMethods of Assessment
Practices related to labor and deliveryInterview/questionnaire
Practices related to mother/infant contactInterview/questionnaire
Selected characteristics of the maternity care facility (i.e., number of births per year)Interview/questionnaire

Data Access and Cost

Data Availability

To request mPINC data, send an email to Those wishing to use the mPINC data must provide a description of the proposed research and complete a data use agreement.


Free of charge.


Geocode Variable(s)


Existing Linkages

None found.

Selected Publications

Allen JA, Perrine CG, Scanlon KS. Breastfeeding Supportive Hospital Practices in the U.S. Differ by County Urbanization Level. J Hum Lact. 2015;31(3):440-443.

Boundy EO, Perrine CG, Nelson JM, et al. Disparities in Hospital-Reported Breast Milk Use in Neonatal Intensive Care Units – United States, 2015. MMWR 2017;66(48):1313-1317.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Progress in Increasing Breastfeeding and Reducing Racial/Ethnic Differences – United States, 2000-2008 Births. MMWR 2013;62(05);77-80.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breastfeeding-related maternity practices at hospitals and birth centers — United States, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2008;57(23):621-625.

Edwards RA, Dee D, Umer A, et al. Using Benchmarking Techniques and the 2011 Maternity Practices Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) Survey to Improve Performance among Peer Groups across the United States. J Hum Lact 2014;30:31-40.

Li CM, Li R, Ashley CG, et al. Association of Hospital Staff Training and Policies with Early Breastfeeding Practices. J Hum Lact 2014;30(1):88-96.

Lind JN, Perrine CG, Li R, et al. Racial Disparities in Access to Maternity Care Practices That Support Breastfeeding – United States, 2011. MMWR 2014;63(33):725-28.

Nelson JM, Li R, Perrine CG. Trends of U.S. Hospitals Distributing Infant Formula Packs to Breastfeeding Mothers, 2007 to 2013. Pediatrics 2015;135(6):1051-6.

Nelson JM, Perrine CG, Scanlon KS, et al. Provision of Non-Breast Milk Supplements to Healthy Breastfed Newborns in U.S. Hospitals, 2009 to 2013. Matern Child Health J. 2016;20(11):2228-2232.

Perrine CG, Galuska DA, Dohack JL, et al. Vital Signs: Improvements in Maternity Care Policies and Practices That Support Breastfeeding – United States, 2007 – 2013. MMWR 2015;64(39):1112-7.

Spatz DL. What is your mPINC score? MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2016;41(4):254.

State Profile Reports