At A Glance

Noteworthy Characteristics

Website

http://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/

Purpose

To collect longitudinal data about health, housing and food expenditures, family composition changes, marriage and fertility histories, employment histories, income/wealth, public assistance (including food stamps), and time spent on housework for individuals and their families in the United States (U.S.).

Target Population

Noninstitutionalized, civilian adults in the U.S. and the family units in which they live.

Conducted

Began in 1968. Conducted annually through 1997 (biennially since 1997). Most recent year conducted is 2017.

Sponsor

The study is funded by the National Science Foundation; the National Institute on Aging, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services); the Economic Research Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture); the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development; the U.S. Department of Labor; and the Center on Philanthropy at the Indiana University-Purdue University.

Special Note(s)

See also the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement (PSID/CDS).

Over the life of the project, funding for the Panel Study of Income Dynamics has been provided by a number of government agencies, foundations, and other organizations. The PSID's original funding agency was the Office of Economic Opportunity of the U.S. Department of Commerce. The study's major funding source is now the National Science Foundation.

Substantial additional funding has been provided by the National Institute on Aging, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, the U.S. Department of Labor, and the Center on Philanthropy at the Indiana University-Purdue University.

Sampling

Sample Design

Longitudinal/panel survey.

Stratified, multistage, probability sampling was used to generate a representative sample of U.S. individuals and the families in which they live. Low-income families were oversampled. Data were collected for a sample of 511 immigrant families from 1997 to 1999 and a Latino Supplement was added in 1990, resulting in adequate sampling of Latinos as well as Blacks and Whites after that year. Learn more.

Sample Size

Approximately 9,000 families and 75,000 individuals in 2013.

Special Note(s)

The number of families and individuals included in the survey has grown over time, as individuals from families in the core sample have been followed, and as children of Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) parents included into the sample form families of their own.

Key Variables

Diet-Related

NameMethods of Assessment
Food program participation, including food stamps (now called Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP]), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and child care and school-based food programs for childrenSelf report
Food securitySelf report
Frequency of family eating togetherInterview/questionnaire
Family frequency of eating outInterview/questionnaire
Household food expendituresInterview/questionnaire
Disability (cognitive; emotional; hearing; movement/physical; vision)Interview/questionnaire

Physical Activity-Related

NameMethods of Assessment
Frequency of light and vigorous physical activitySelf report (for heads of household only)
Frequency weight-bearing exerciseSelf report

Weight-Related

NameMethods of Assessment
Height and weight (starting in 1999)Self report (for heads of household only)

Geocode/Linkage

NameMethods of Assessment
Census tract, census block, zip code, county, and stateN/A

Data Access and Cost

Data Availability

Obtain data at the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)-CDS Data Center website. Follow the instructions for requesting customized data files and documentation.

Cost

Free of charge.

Special Note(s)

Restricted data (geocodes, data on mortality and housing assistance, Hurricane Katrina module) are provided only to individuals who meet requirements and enter into a contract with the University of Michigan. Contracts must be renewed every 180 days for a total contractual period of 3 years.

To initiate the contract process, the following materials must be submitted for review: a research statement; a data protection plan; Institutional Review Board approval from one’s home institution; and an administrative processing fee of $750. Upon approval of these materials, a contract will be sent to the requestor’s institution. Contact psidhelp@umich.edu for more information.

The most recent year for which data are available is not necessarily the most recent year this survey was conducted.

Geocode/Linkage

Geocode Variable(s)

Geocode available by special agreement (see Special Notes under Data Access and Cost): census tract, census block, zip code, county, and state.

Existing Linkages

Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data can be linked to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement (PSID/CDS), Transition to Adulthood Study data, and census data.

Special Note(s)

PSID data have been linked to Medicare and National Death Index files using personal identifiers that are not available to researchers.

Selected Publications

Click here for a full list of publications.

Weight-Related

Davis MM, McGonagle KA, Schoeni RF, Stafford FP. Grandparental and parental obesity influences on childhood overweight: Implications for primary care practice. Journal of American Board of Family Medicine 2008;21(6):549-554.

Forshee RA, Anderson PA, Storey ML. Associations of various family characteristics and time use with children's body mass index. Journal of Community Health Nursing 2009;26(2):77-86.

Garasky S, Stewart SD, Gundersen C, Lohnman BJ, Eisenmann JC. Family stressors and child obesity. Social Science Research 2009;38(4):755-766.

Jiang M, Foster EM. Duration of breastfeeding and childhood obesity: a generalized propensity score approach. Health Serv Res. 2013 Apr;48(2 Pt 1):628-51.

Metzger MW, McDade TW. Breastfeeding as obesity prevention in the United States: A sibling difference model. American Journal of Human Biology 2009;22(3):291-296.

Zimmerman FJ, Bell JF. Associations of television content type and obesity in children. American Journal of Public Health 2010;100(2):334-340.

Ziol-Guest KM, Duncan GJ, Kalil A. Early childhood poverty and adult body mass index. American Journal of Public Health 2009;99(3):527-521.

Methods

Burkhauser RV, Cawley J. Adding biomeasures relating to fatness and obesity to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Biodemography and Social Biology 2009;55(2):118-139.