Abstract

Citation

Cheng C, Martin-Biggers J, Quick V, Spaccarotella K, Byrd-Bredbenner C. Validity and reliability of HOP-Up: a questionnaire to evaluate physical activity environments in homes with preschool-aged children. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2016 Aug 18;13:91.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Early identification of physical activity (PA) opportunities in the home and neighborhood environment may help obesity prevention efforts in households with young children. This cross-sectional study's purpose was to develop a brief, easy-to-use, self-report inventory called Home Opportunities for Physical activity check-Up (HOP-Up), to evaluate the availability and accessibility of PA space and equipment in and near homes with preschool children, and establish its validity and reliability. METHODS: The HOP-Up was field tested by two trained researchers and parents of preschool-aged children (n = 50; 71% white). To establish criterion validity, researchers were the 'gold standard' and visited participants' homes to assess their PA environments using the HOP-Up, while participants separately completed their HOP-Up. Two weeks later, parents completed the HOP-Up online for test-retest reliability. After minor survey refinements, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using a split-half cross validation procedure was conducted in a larger sample of participants (n = 655, 60% white) who completed the HOP-Up online to examine its factor structure. To establish convergent validity, correlations were conducted to compare HOP-Up scales from the factor solution generated with PA behavior and cognitions, and reported screen time. RESULTS: Intra-class correlations (ICCs) examining HOP-Up item agreement between researcher and parents revealed slight to substantial agreement (range 0.22 to 0.81) for all items. ICCs for all HOP-Up items ranged from fair to substantial agreement between parent responses at both time points (range 0.42 to 0.95). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a five factor solution (18 items), supported eigen values, scree plots, review for contextual sense, and confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, there were significant (p <>&#60 0.05) positive correlations among nearly all five HOP-Up scales with parent and child physical activity levels (range 0.08 to 0.35), and values parents placed on PA for self and child (range 0.16 to 0.35), and negative correlations of Neighborhood Space & Supports for PA scale with parent and child reported screen time (r = -0.11, r = -0.13, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the psychometric properties of this brief, easy-to-use, HOP-Up questionnaire, which may help parents, prevention researchers, residential planners, and practitioners increase their understanding of how the home environment-inside, outside, and the neighborhood- impacts preschool children's physical activity levels.

Full Text

The full text is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0417-3

At A Glance

Physical Activity Environment Variables

# Type of Environment/Location
50Home, Inside and Immediately Outside
# Scale
-Equipment
Measure objective perceived
Crime/Safety
Pedestrian/Traffic Safety
Facility Adequacy/Appeal or Quality
Open Space/Greenness

Individual Physical Activity Behavior Variables

Behavior
Sports/Recreation
Active Play

Domain(s)

Physical Activity Environment

Individual Physical Activity Behavior

Measure Type

Questionnaire

Inventory

Measure Availability

Measure included in article

Number of Items

35 Reported

Study location

Metro/Urban

Central New Jersey, USA

Languages

English

Information about Development of Measure

An extensive review of questionnaires that assess physical activity and/or sedentary activity supports identified key components of the home and near environments related to obesity risk. An item bank of pertinent questions was created and organized by location (in or outside of the home). After expert review, items were eliminated, added or changed. A scoring system and layout design for the resulting Home Opportunities for Physical activity check-Up (HOP-Up) was again subjected to expert review as well as cognitive testing and revision.

Study Design

Study Participants

Age

2 - 5 Years

Sex

Female

Male

Race/Ethnicity

Hispanic

White

Predominantly Low-income/Low-SES

Not reported

Sample Size

50

Study Design

Design Type

Validation/Reliability

Health Outcomes Assessed

None

Obesity Measures

Not applicable

BMI Measured or Self-reported

Not applicable

Covariates

Not reported

Data Reported on Race/Ethnicity

Not applicable

Data Reported on SES

Not applicable

SES-related Variables

Not applicable

How To Use

Administration

Who Administered

Self-administered

Researcher-administered

How Administered

In-person

Web-based

Time Required

45 minutes

Training Required

Yes, time not reported

Instructions on Use

Not Reported

Data Analysis

Data Collection/Analysis Costs

Not reported

Data Collection/Protocol

Two trained researchers visited the homes of participants. During the home visit, researchers and parents simultaneously, but independently, assessed the physical and sedentary activity environment of parents' home environments using the Home Opportunities for Physical activity check-Up (HOP-Up) pencil and paper format. Parents completed the entire questionnaire and researchers completed only the items that could be readily observed. Researchers assessed the neighborhood using online resources (e.g., Google Maps) and conducted visual observations upon arrival into the neighborhood. Parents completed the questionnaire again, two weeks later, using an online format.

Instructions on Data Analysis

Instructions on analysis included in article

Validity (3)

Type of validity Construct/subscale assessed Criterion measure used Test/statistic used Result
Criterion Home Opportunities for Physical Activity Check-Up, Physical Activity Environment in the Neighborhood scale items, parent Home Opportunities for Physical Activity Check-Up, Physical Activity Environment in the Neighborhood scale items, researcher Intraclass correlations (ICC) ICC = 0.48 to 0.81
Criterion Home Opportunities for Physical Activity Check-Up, Physical Activity Environment in the Area Immediately Outside the Home (Yard) scale items, parent Home Opportunities for Physical Activity Check-Up, Physical Activity Environment in the Area Immediately Outside the Home (Yard) scale items, researcher Intraclass correlations (ICC) ICC = 0.22 to 0.86
Criterion Home Opportunities for Physical Activity Check-Up, Physical Activity Environment Inside the Home scale items, parent Home Opportunities for Physical Activity Check-Up, Physical Activity Environment Inside the Home scale items, researcher Intraclass correlations (ICC) ICC = 0.29 to 0.59

Reliability (3)

Type of reliability Construct/subscale assessed Test/statistic used Result
Test-retest Home Opportunities for Physical Activity Check-Up, Physical Activity Environment in the Neighborhood scale items Intraclass correlations (ICC) ICC = 0.42 to 0.92
Test-retest Home Opportunities for Physical Activity Check-Up, Physical Activity Environment in the Area Immediately Outside the Home (Yard) scale items Intraclass correlations (ICC) ICC = 0.45 to 0.95
Test-retest Home Opportunities for Physical Activity Check-Up, Physical Activity Environment Inside the Home scale items Intraclass correlations (ICC) ICC = 0.45 to 0.90