Lora KR, Davy B, Hedrick V, Ferris AM, Anderson MP, Wakefield D. Assessing Initial Validity and Reliability of a Beverage Intake Questionnaire in Hispanic Preschool-Aged Children. J Acad Nutr Diet 2016 Dec;116(12):1951-1960. Epub 2016 Aug 21.


BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between high-calorie beverage consumption and weight gain requires an accurate report of dietary intake. A critical need exists to develop and test the psychometrics of brief quantitative tools for minority pediatric populations. OBJECTIVE: To modify the adult beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) for Hispanic preschool-aged children (BEVQ-PS) and test its validity and test-retest reliability in children aged 3 to 5 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. The modified quantitative 12-beverage category questionnaire assessed consumption of water, fruit juice, sweetened juice drinks, whole milk, reduced-fat milk, low-fat milk, flavored milk, carbonated sweetened drinks, diet carbonated drinks, sweet tea, tea with or without artificial sweetener, and sport drinks consumed during the past month. Hispanic mothers (n=109) recruited from day-care centers provided one 4-day food intake record (FIR) and completed two BEVQ-PS surveys during a 2-week period for their preschool-aged child. Data collection was conducted through one-on-one interviews in Spanish. Validity was assessed by comparing amounts (in grams) and energy intake (in kilocalories) for each beverage category between the first BEVQ-PS and the mean of the FIRs using paired t tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Criteria for validity were nonsignificant mean differences in grams and kilocalories from the first BEVQ-PS and mean of the FIRs beverage categories, and significant correlation coefficients between beverage categories. Test-retest reliability was assessed by comparing grams and kilocalories for each beverage category in the first BEVQ-PS with those from the second BEVQ-PS using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The criterion for reliability was a significant correlation coefficient between beverage categories. Significance was set at P<0.05. RESULTS: Mean differences between the first BEVQ-PS and FIR for water (42.4±23.1 g), sweetened juice drinks (-1.6±11.0 g), whole milk (18.3±9.91 g), sweetened carbonated drinks (-13.0±7.9 g), and total sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) (1.4±8.9 g) were not significantly different, but were significantly correlated (r=0.20 to 0.37; P<0.05). Thus, validity criteria were met. With the exception of flavored milk and tea with or without artificial sweeteners, the remaining beverage categories-total beverages and SSB-in the first BEVQ-PS were correlated with those from the second BEVQ-PS (r=0.20 to 0.68; P<0.05), meeting reliability criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers and clinicians may use the BEVQ-PS to assess SSB, water, and whole-milk intake in Hispanic children. Additional modifications should be evaluated to assess total beverage intake.

Full Text

The full text is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2016.06.376

At A Glance

Individual Dietary Behavior Variables

Sweetened Beverages
100% Juice
Low-fat Dairy
Whole Milk, Water
Eating/Snacking Frequency


Individual Dietary Behavior

Measure Type


Measure Availability

Measure included in article

Number of Items

13 Reported

Study location


Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA



Information about Development of Measure

To modify the adult beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) for children aged three to five years, twenty Hispanic mothers were recruited from day-care centers to complete a semi-structured interview regarding the types and amounts of beverages consumed by their preschool-aged children. This information was used to identify applicable beverages from the BEVQ-15, add new beverages, and adapt serving sizes for preschool-aged children.

Study Design

Study Participants


2 - 5 Years






Predominantly Low-income/Low-SES


Sample Size


Study Design

Design Type

Not reported

Health Outcomes Assessed


Obesity Measures

Not reported

BMI Measured or Self-reported

Not applicable


Not available

Data Reported on Race/Ethnicity

Quantitative data on study sample

Data Reported on SES

Quantitative data on study sample

SES-related Variables

Program Participation (e.g., WIC, Free/Reduced School Meals)

How To Use


Who Administered


Third-party administered (e.g., parent/staff)

How Administered


Time Required

Not reported

Training Required

Yes, time not reported

Instructions on Use

Instructions on instrument use included in article

Data Analysis

Data Collection/Analysis Costs

Not reported

Data Collection/Protocol

Hispanic mothers and their three to five year-old children were recruited from four day-care centers. Mothers were given the option to complete the interview and Beverage Questionnaire for Preschoolers (BEVQ-PS) in English or Spanish as bilingual researchers were available. Mothers met with the interviewer three times within a two week period. Mothers were randomly assigned to complete one of two test session sequences; Sequence One: session one (BEVQ-PS1), session two (4-day food intake record (FIR)), session three (BEVQ-PS2), or Sequence Two: session one (FIR), session two (BEVQ-PS1), session three (BEVQ-PS2). There were five to six days between each session, and six to nine days between testing-retesting of the BEVQ-PS.

Instructions on Data Analysis

Instructions on analysis included in article

Validity (2)

Type of validity Construct/subscale assessed Criterion measure used Test/statistic used Result
Criterion Beverage Questionnaire for Preschoolers (BEVQ-PS), total sugar sweetened beverages Four day food intake record (FIR) Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) r = 0.20 for grams, p < 0.05; r = 0.13 for kilocalories, p < 0.05
Criterion Beverage Questionnaire for Preschoolers (BEVQ-PS), total beverages Four day food intake record (FIR) Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) r = 0.09 for grams, NS; r = 0.14 for kilocalories, NS

Reliability (2)

Type of reliability Construct/subscale assessed Test/statistic used Result
Test-retest Beverage Questionnaire for Preschoolers (BEVQ-PS), total beverages Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) r = 0.62 for grams, p < 0.001; r = 0.69 for kilocalories, p < 0.001
Test-retest Beverage Questionnaire for Preschoolers (BEVQ-PS), total sugar sweetened beverages Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) r = 0.40 for grams, p < 0.001; r = 0.30 for kilocalories, p < 0.001