Beaton E, Wright J, Devenish G, Do L, Scott J. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers. Nutrients 2018 Jan 12;10. (1).
There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR). A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers (n = 699) at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE) project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR) in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR) using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level.
The full text is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10010080
At A Glance
Individual Dietary Behavior Variables
|Total Energy/Energy Density|
|Macronutrients, including Saturated Fat|
Individual Dietary Behavior
24-hour dietary recall
Number of Items
South Australia, Australia
Information about Development of Measure
Within-subject variation of twenty-four hour dietary recalls (24HR) has been found to be lower than between-subject variation in children aged twelve months. To date, the validity of the 24HR in assessing the intake of young children has been the subject of only one study, and research on intakes of key nutrients (energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars) is warranted.
2 - 5 Years
Health Outcomes Assessed
BMI Measured or Self-reported
Data Reported on Race/Ethnicity
Quantitative data on study sample
Data Reported on SES
Quantitative data on study sample
Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD)
How To Use
Third-party administered (e.g., parent/staff)
Instructions on Use
Instructions on instrument use included in article
Data Collection/Analysis Costs
Dietary data were collected from mothers when children reached twelve months of age using a twenty-four hour dietary record (24HR) and a two day food record (2DFR). The three days of dietary collection were non-consecutive, within a ten day period and contained two weekdays and one weekend day. Prior to dietary data collection, participants were sent a food diary booklet containing instructions for completion, along with photos of food portion sizes and examples of household measures. The 24HR of their child’s intake was completed via telephone with a trained dietitian using the five-step multipass method. Mothers returned the completed 2DFR in a reply-paid envelope.
Instructions on Data Analysis
Instructions on analysis included in article
|Type of validity||Construct/subscale assessed||Criterion measure used||Test/statistic used||Result|
|Criterion||Twenty-four hour dietary record (24HR), kilojoule and key nutrient intake||twenty-four hour dietary record (24HR) plus two day food record (2DFR), kilojoule and key nutrient intake||Bland–Altman statistics, mean difference (MD)||MD = 65.6 kilojoules for energy MD = 0.6 grams for protein MD = 3.8 milligrams for calcium MD = 0.01 milligrams for iron MD = -0.18 grams for added sugars|
|Criterion||Twenty-four hour dietary record (24HR), kilojoule and key nutrient intake||twenty-four hour dietary record (24HR) plus two day food record (2DFR), kilojoule and key nutrient intake||Bland–Altman statistics, limits of agreement (LOA)||LOA = -1220.4, 1351.7 for energy LOA = -15.9, 17.0 for protein LOA = -268.3, 275.8 for calcium LOA = -0.56, 0.58 for iron LOA = -1.53, 1.17 for added sugar|
There are no reliability tests reported for this measure.