Johnson RK, Driscoll P, Goran MI. Comparison of multiple-pass 24-hour recall estimates of energy intake with total energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water method in young children. J Am Diet Assoc 1996 Nov;96(11):1140-4.


OBJECTIVE: This study determined the accuracy of the multiple-pass 24-hour recall method for estimating energy intake in young children by comparing it with measurements of total energy expenditure made using the doubly labeled water method. DESIGN: Three multiple-pass 24-hour recalls were obtained over a 14-day period to estimate mean energy intake. Total energy expenditure was measured over the same 14-day period under free-living conditions using the doubly labeled water technique. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Twenty-four children between the ages of 4 and 7 years were tested at the General Clinical Research Center/Sims Obesity Nutrition Research Center at the University of Vermont. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: t Tests, paired t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, pairwise comparison to show relative bias and limits of agreement, and regression analysis were used to test the relationships among study variables. RESULTS: No difference was found between 3-day mean energy intake and total energy expenditure for the group (t = 2.07, P = .65). The correlation between individual measures of energy intake and total energy expenditure was not statistically significant (r = .25, P = .24). CONCLUSIONS: Data from 3 days of multiple-pass 24-hour recalls were sufficient to make valid group estimates of energy intake. The method was not precise for individual measurements of energy intake.

Full Text

The full text is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(96)00293-3

At A Glance

Individual Dietary Behavior Variables

Total Energy/Energy Density


Individual Dietary Behavior

Measure Type

24-hour dietary recall

Measure Availability

Not reported

Number of Items

Not applicable

Study location

Metro/Urban, Small Town/Rural

Burlington, VT, USA

The subjects were recruited from Burlington, VT, and the surrounding rural areas.



Information about Development of Measure

Nothing to add

Study Design

Study Participants


2 - 5 Years

6 - 11 Years






Predominantly Low-income/Low-SES

Not reported

Sample Size


Study Design

Design Type


Health Outcomes Assessed


Obesity Measures

Not applicable

BMI Measured or Self-reported

Not applicable


Not reported

Data Reported on Race/Ethnicity

Quantitative data on study sample

Data Reported on SES

Not applicable

SES-related Variables

Not applicable

How To Use


Who Administered


How Administered



Time Required

Not reported

Training Required

Yes, time not reported

Instructions on Use

Not reported

Data Analysis

Data Collection/Analysis Costs

Not available

Data Collection/Protocol

Three recalls per child were completed on nonconsecutive days within the 14-day measurement period. Interviews were performed with the child's mother (occasionally the father would contribute) in conjunction with the child.

Instructions on Data Analysis

Not reported

Validity (2)

Type of validity Construct/subscale assessed Criterion measure used Test/statistic used Result
Criterion Three 24-hour dietary recalls- Mean Energy Intake Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) using doubly labeled water Paired t test t=2.07, p=0.65
Criterion Three 24-hour dietary recalls-Total energy intake Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) using doubly labeled water Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient r=0.25, p = 0.24

Reliability (0)

There are no reliability tests reported for this measure.