Nicklas TA, Yang SJ, Baranowski T, Zakeri I, Berenson G. Eating patterns and obesity in children. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Prev Med 2003 Jul;25(1):9-16.
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a growing public health problem. This study examined the association between eating patterns and overweight status in children who participated in the Bogalusa Heart Study. METHODS: A single 24-hour dietary recall was collected on a cross-sectional sample of 1562 children aged 10 years (65% Euro-American [EA], 35% African American [AA]) over a 21-year period. Overweight was defined as body mass index greater than the 85th percentile using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference standards. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the association between eating patterns and overweight. RESULTS: Consumption of sweetened beverages (58% soft drinks, 20% fruit flavor drinks, 19% tea, and 3% coffee) (p<0.001); sweets (desserts, candy, and sweetened beverages) (p<0.001); meats (mixed meats, poultry, seafood, eggs, pork, and beef) (p<0.051); and total consumption of low-quality foods (p<0.01) were positively associated with overweight status. Total amount of food consumed, specifically from snacks, was positively associated with overweight status (p<0.05). There was a lack of congruency in the types of eating patterns associated with overweight status across four ethnic-gender groups. The percent variance explained from the eating pattern-overweight models was very small. The interaction of ethnicity and gender was significantly associated with overweight status (p<0.001). The odds of being overweight for EA males were 1.2 times higher than for AA females. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that numerous eating patterns were associated with overweight status, yet the odds of being overweight were very small. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings in a longitudinal sample having multiple days of assessment.
The full text is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0749-3797(03)00098-9
At A Glance
Individual Dietary Behavior Variables
|Total Energy/Energy Density|
|Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value|
Individual Dietary Behavior
24-hour dietary recall
Number of Items
Bogalusa, LA, USA
Information about Development of Measure
Nothing to add
6 - 11 Years
Health Outcomes Assessed
BMI for age
BMI Measured or Self-reported
Sociodemographic characteristics (socioeconomic status, race)
Data Reported on Race/Ethnicity
Quantitative data on study sample
Data Reported on SES
How To Use
Yes, time not reported
Instructions on Use
Data Collection/Analysis Costs
The timeframe of the 24-hour recall period included everything the child consumed from the time he/she woke up until the time of the interveiw and everthing after the interveiw time on the previous day until the time the child went to bed.
Instructions on Data Analysis
There are no validity tests reported for this measure.
There are no reliability tests reported for this measure.