Louie JC, Gwynn J, Turner N, Cochrane J, Wiggers J, Flood V. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load among Indigenous and non-Indigenous children aged 10-12 years. Nutrition 2012 Jul;28(7-8):e14-22. Epub 2012 Apr 7.


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous rural children and identify the main foods contributing to their GI and GL. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of food intake of 215 children (38.1% were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders) 10 to 12 y old obtained by three 24-h recalls was conducted. The foods were ranked according to their total contribution to total carbohydrates, GI, and GL. RESULTS: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participants had a significantly higher dietary GL (155.8 ± 46.8 versus 135.4 ± 31.2, P < 0.001) and GI (58.3 ± 3.9 versus 56.9 ± 3.8, P = 0.008) than the non-Indigenous participants. White breads were the main contributors of GI and GL in both groups and were a main driver for the increasing GI. Fiber was not associated with GI, whereas sugar and starch were positively associated. Subjects with a higher GI tended to be less physically active. CONCLUSION: The quality of carbohydrates in the diets of the participants was low, with poorer dietary items contributing most of the GI and GL. Substituting white breads with low/lower GI alternatives may be a useful strategy.

Full Text

The full text is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2011.12.007

At A Glance

Individual Dietary Behavior Variables

Total Energy/Energy Density
Macronutrients, including Saturated Fat
Dietary Quality
Dietary Glycemic Index


Individual Dietary Behavior

Measure Type

24-hour dietary recall

Measure Availability

Not available

Number of Items

Not applicable

Study location

Small Town/Rural




Information about Development of Measure

A Glycemic Index (GI) was assigned to the Many Rivers Diabetes Prevention Program food items by a previously described method. The daily dietary Glycemic Load (GL) of each subject was calculated as the sum of GI (percentage) multiplied by the amount of carbohydrate (CHO) for the quantity of food consumed. The dietary GI was obtained by multiplying the ratio of the dietary GL to the total CHO intake during the day by 100%. The mean daily dietary GI and GL for each participant were obtained by averaging the dietary GI and GL of the three recall days.The food items were ranked according to their contribution to total CHOs and dietary GI and GL.

Study Design

Study Participants


6 - 11 Years

12 - 18 Years






Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander

Predominantly Low-income/Low-SES

Not reported

Sample Size


Study Design

Design Type

Instrument/Method Development Without Validation/Reliability

Health Outcomes Assessed


Obesity Measures

BMI for age

BMI Measured or Self-reported

Measured height

Measured weight


Not reported

Data Reported on Race/Ethnicity

Quantitative data on study sample

Data Reported on SES

Not applicable

SES-related Variables

Not applicable

How To Use


Who Administered


How Administered


Time Required

Not reported

Training Required

Yes, time not reported

Instructions on Use

Not reported

Data Analysis

Data Collection/Analysis Costs

Not available

Data Collection/Protocol

Physical activity data were self-reported by the respondent using the Many Rivers Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire. The food intake of the participants was obtained by multiple-pass 24-hour recalls. The recalls were collected by research assistants and Aboriginal health workers who had been trained by the study research nutritionist. Three intake days, including two weekdays and one weekend day, were obtained from participants.

Instructions on Data Analysis

Instructions on analysis included in article

Validity (0)

There are no validity tests reported for this measure.

Reliability (0)

There are no reliability tests reported for this measure.