Trolle E, Amiano P, Ege M, Bower E, Lioret S, Brants H, Kaic-Rak A, de Boer EJ, Andersen LF, EFCOVAL Consortium. Feasibility of 2 × 24-h dietary recalls combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft, among schoolchildren. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011 Jul;65 Suppl 1:S65-76.


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the suggested trans-European methodology for undertaking representative dietary surveys among schoolchildren: 2 × 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) combined with a food-recording booklet, using EPIC-Soft (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) pc-program. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 75 children aged 7-8 years and 70 children aged 12-13 years old were recruited through the Civil Registration System in Denmark, and 57 children aged 7-8 years and 47 children aged 12-13 years were recruited through schools in Spain. Each child with one parent completed two face-to-face 24-HDRs, combined with optional use of a food-recording booklet (FRB) to be filled in by the child, a parent or other proxy persons for preparing the recalls. Feasibility was evaluated by questionnaires completed by parents, children and interviewers, and by selected data from the 24-HDRs. RESULTS: The face-to-face interviews with the child and a parent together are confirmed as feasible. The children participated actively in the interviews, the oldest children being most active. The children, parents and interviewers agreed that children needed help from the parents, and that parents were of help to the child. In both countries, other proxy persons, such as teachers or the school cafeteria staff, were involved before the interview, and the majority of the parents and children reported that the FRB had been a help for the child during the interview. Further results point at specific needed improvements of the tools. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluated method is shown feasible in two culturally diverse European populations. However, the feasibility study also points to specific improvements of tools and data collection protocol that are strongly recommended before implementation of the method in each country of a pan-European dietary survey.

Full Text

The full text is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.89

At A Glance

Individual Dietary Behavior Variables

Total Energy/Energy Density
Food Groups
Macronutrients, including Saturated Fat
Cooking method and recipe ingredients
Meal/Snack Patterns


Individual Dietary Behavior

Measure Type

24-hour dietary recall

Measure Availability

Not reported

Number of Items

Not applicable

Study location

Metro/Urban, Small Town/Rural

Basque Country, northern region, Spain, Denmark



Basque, Danish

Information about Development of Measure

EPIC-Soft software was developed to conduct 24-hour dietary recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

Study Design

Study Participants


6 - 11 Years

12 - 18 Years







Predominantly Low-income/Low-SES


Sample Size


Study Design

Design Type

Instrument/Method Development Without Validation/Reliability

Feasibility study

Health Outcomes Assessed


Obesity Measures

Not reported

BMI Measured or Self-reported

Measured height

Measured weight


Not reported

Data Reported on Race/Ethnicity

Quantitative data on study sample

Data Reported on SES

Quantitative data on study sample

SES-related Variables


How To Use


Who Administered


How Administered



Time Required

Not Reported

Training Required

Yes, time reported: 7 days

Instructions on Use

Not reported

Data Analysis

Data Collection/Analysis Costs

Not available

Data Collection/Protocol

All children and parents were first contacted by phone to to provide study instructions. The 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted with the child and one of the parents during two visits at the child's home. The 24-hour dietary recalls were of two non-consecutive days and were based on face-to-face computer-assisted interviews using EPIC-Soft, with 4 to 6 weeks between the two interview days. The families were also provided with a small food record booklet for the children to bring to school, in order to record intake either by themselves or by proxy persons. The feasibility of these dietary instruments was measured by evaluation questionnaires completed by children, parents, and interviewers.

Instructions on Data Analysis

Instructions on analysis included in article

Validity (0)

There are no validity tests reported for this measure.

Reliability (0)

There are no reliability tests reported for this measure.